Mustafa Kamal by Wilfrid Thomas Froggatt Castle

Mustafa Kamal by Wilfrid T.F. Castle

Author's Introduction

Wilfrid Thomas Froggatt Castle as known as Wilfrid F. Castle(1911-1999) was born in North Bierley who got his education at the University of Cambridge. He published his first book in the same year. After that, he went to Palestine for further studies. He became a chaplain in Cyprus and wrote books on the history of turkey and Syria.

He was a clergyman in the Church of England, author, and philatelist and wrote the history and philately of the former Ottoman Empire. In 1952, he published the first edition of the book on the stamp and postal history of Cyprus. 

In 1974, he became the first president of Cyprus Study Circle and remained in the position till his death. He wrote books and also articles for the Philatelic Magzine. His famous books An English Parish Church of 1740, Grand Turk, and Syrian Pageant. He died at the age of 88 in 1999.

Summary

Wilfrid T.F. Castle wrote an essay on Mustafa Kamal the Turk leader. In this essay, the defeat of Turkey, the over-powering of the Allied Forces, and the Turk struggle for independence under the leadership of Mustafa Kamal were delineated. 

This essay also highlights the war of independence with Greeks and lastly the economic, cultural, and political growth of Turkey. Turkey faced defeat in the First World War and Allied Forces took control of the Turks.  

Sultan Muhammad fourth became subservient to the Allies. The Allies started managing the administration according to their choice. The Royal Army of Turkey was abolished. The Ottoman Empire established its government in Anatolia.

This Ottoman Empire began a resistance against the Allies in Kiyazim Karabekar. Padishah sent Mustafa Kamal to Anatolia to crush the rebellion. Mustafa kamal was capable as well as a patriotic army officer. On 15th May 1919, he departed to Anatolia.

Mustafa Kamal had taken a decision to make his country free. The higher authorities became doubtful of his intentions. They issued orders to stop his ship but it was too late now. The Allies had decided on the partition of Istanbul. The Turk army was hurriedly sent to barracks.

On seeing this all the patriots of Turkey got infuriated. Even those Turks got furious who were with the Allies. The patriotism of the Turks was awakened now. They preferred to die instead to be in the subjugation of Greeks. They raged a guerrilla war against them.

Mustafa Kamal went door to door and organized the people against the Greeks. The youth of the old royal army started joining the national army. They looted the guns and ammunition dumps of the Allies. When Mehmet heard about the situation, he ordered Mustafa Kamal back to Istambul.

In return, Mustafa Kamal sent a long telegram to kaliph. He requested kaliph to take charge of the lead against the Greeks. Mustafa Kamal announced that he would stay in Anatolia until the Turks had won their freedom. He prepared a strong army of patriot Turks.

The Turk army forced the Allies to vacate the interior areas. In return, the Allies dissolved the national assembly and controlled Istambul. The leading patriots joined Mustafa Kamal. On 23rd April 1920, Turkey's grand national assembly met Mustafa Kamal as president. 

This assembly declared itself the only representative of the Turks. The Allies wanted an agreement with Padishah to do an uneven distribution of the areas of Turkey. The Turks at once rejected this plan. The Allies instigated the Greeks to attack Turks.

On August 21, 1921, a war started between Turks and Greeks. The Turk army defeated Greeks badly. Mustafa Kamal became the ruler of Turkey. He abolished Sultanat by a unanimous vote of the Grand National Assembly.

On 17 November 1922, Padishah had left the charge of the government. On 29th October 1923, Ottoman Empire resigned from office and was replaced by the Turkish Republic. Mustafa Kamal became the president of Turkey and General Ismat Inonu was the prime minister.

On assuming power, Mustafa Kamal announced effective reforms. His first object was to provide education to the masses. He abolished the old script and replaced it with the Roman script. He also simplified the Turkish script. Mustafa Kamal's abolition of the veil was worth mentioning. 

The women got freedom and started working freely with the men. Turkish cap was replaced by a hat. He improved the systems of roads and railways. New industries were started. The banking system was improved. Foreign debts were returned. New industries were introduced. Turkey got immense success in few years.  

Textual Questions and Their Answers

Question 1

What was the attitude of the Turkish government towards the Allies after World War 1?

Answer

The Padishah and Turkish governments were passionate to collaborate with the Allies. They thought that loyalty to the Armistice and cooperation with the Allies were in the best interest of their nation.

Question 2

Why was Mustafa Kamal sent to Anatolia?

Answer

Mustafa Kamal was sent to Anatolia to crush the rebellious movement of Kiyazim Kerbekar who refused to disband his men and continued resistance against the Allies. A strong capable person was needed, so Mustafa Kamal was selected to do the job.

Question 3

What was the reaction of the Turkish patriots to the intention of the Allies to partition the Ottoman Empire?

Answer

All the Turkish patriots as well as the friends of the Allies were infuriated by the idea of partitioning the Ottoman Empire. Turkish patriotism was clear and no more vague and undecided. It seemed a flame burning in the hearts of Turkish men and women.

Question 4

Write a note on Mustafa Kamal's activities in Anatolia/ What was the plan of resistance of Mustafa Kamal.

Answer

Mustafa Kamal met Ali Faut, the commander of a small army corps centered on Ankara, and in a secret meeting of the patriots; he sketched out his plan of resistance. 

They sent guerilla bands to attack the advancing Greeks meanwhile they decided to build an army of patriots. Mustafa Kamal gave a new spirit to the Turkish patriots. They rose to resistance when they heard about the advance of the Greeks.

Question 5

Why did Mehmet order Mustafa Kamal to return to Constantinople or Istanbul?

Answer

It happened so that Mustafa Kamal had successfully raised the National army of the patriots. They vowed to fight against the foreign. Moreover, when the people heard about the advancing Greeks, they rose to the occasion. A rebellion was started so Mehmet ordered Kamal to return to Istanbul.

Question 6

What was Mustafa Kamal's reply? 

Answer

Mustafa Kamal did not obey the orders of Padishah and promised to fight till his last breath. He sent the most important telegram to Padishah, saying, I shall stay in Anatolia until the nation has won independence.

Question 7

How did Mehmet try to regain Anatolia for himself?

Answer

When Mustafa Kamal made his position strong in Anatolia, Mehmet tried to take over control of Anatolia by subtlety. Unexpectedly, he was ready to summon a government pleasing to Nationalists. 

He suggested that the delegates of Anatolia could transfer their activities to Istanbul, put Mustafa Kamal's ideas into practice, and yet no longer stand in opposition to Sultan.

Question 8

Why did his Mehmet plan fail?

Answer

He failed in his plan because Mustafa Kamal refused to follow his command. Kamal proposed that the parliament should sit in Ankara, instead of Istanbul. Moreover, he remained busy forming a large army of regular troops, armed peasants, and women for supplying arms.

Question 9

What were the terms offered to Turkey by the Allies?

Answer

There were terms of peace published by the Allies:
A small and helpless Ottoman Empire was to be completely under the supervision of the Allied powers. All the Arabs provinces were to become Mandated Territories. Eastern Anatolia was to be included in the state of Armenia. 

Izmir was to be a large Greek district. Cecilia was to go to the French. Istanbul was to be an international center under the control of Britain, France, and Italy.

Question 10 

Give an account of the Greek attack and its defeat.

Answer 

The Greeks attacked Turkey on the 21st of August 1921. In the mountain country above the Sakarya river, some 50 kilometers from Ankara, the two valiant nations fought almost man to man for fourteen days. 

Mustafa Kamal was the brave commander of the Turks. He led them so masterly that by the 4th of September, the Greeks were completely defeated.

Question 11

Give an account of the departure of Mehmet from Istanbul.

Answer 

Mehmet departed from Istanbul on the 17th of November 1922. A British motor ambulance drew up at a side door of the palace where he was staying. Some baggage was taken out of the palace, placed in the car and Mehmet was way to exile.

Question 12

Sum up in a few sentences the work of Mustafa Kamal as a great nation-builder.

Answer

Mustafa Kamal is called a great nation builder because he liberated his country from foreign occupation and laid the foundation of modern Turkey. He introduced revolutionary reforms to put the Turkish nation on the road of progress and prosperity. The Turkish nation became strong and modern due to its social, educational, economic, and industrial reforms.

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